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 wview User Manual       May 29, 2014

 Table of Contents



 Chapter 1: Introduction

 What is wview?

wview is a collection of linux/unix daemons which interface with a supported weather station to retrieve archive records (if generated by the station) and current conditions. If the station does not generate archive records internally, wview will auto-generate archive records based on the sensor readings collected for that interval. The archive records and High/Low (HILOW) data are stored in SQLite3 databases. At a configurable interval, wview will utilize the archive history and current conditions to generate weather images (buckets, dials and graphs) and HTML web pages based on user-configurable HTML templates. XML, PHP, Perl, Python, etc. template files can also be defined using wview meta-tags which will be replaced with current values when generated by wview.

Features:

 System Requirements

wview should work on any system with a unix or unix derivative operating system. These include: linux, Mac OSX (Darwin), FreeBSD, NetBSD, Solaris. Your platform should support ethernet and either RS-232 or USB for the station interface.

 Where to Get wview

wview and some utility install and upgrade scripts can be obtained from the wview Sourceforge Homepage.

 Getting Help and Reporting Problems

The wview user's group is hosted on Google Groups: wview User's Group

To report problems or vote on enhancements you can use the wview Mantis Database.

 Chapter 2: Installation

 Overview

To use wview, you must:

Currently the binary distributions available are:
If your platform is not one of these or you want to install from source, you will need to know where to get the latest version of wview and how to install it.

This chapter shows you how to obtain source and binary packages and how to build wview from source should you choose to do so.

The following are the general steps you would use:
  1. Download the relevant package for your needs, e.g. source or binary distribution.
  2. Build the source into a binary, if you have downloaded the source. This may involve building and/or installing other necessary packages.
  3. Install the binaries into their final destinations.

Run Environment:
There are several configuration variables which affect the location of the wview run environment. "--prefix=xxx" (defaults to /usr/local for source builds) is the top-level root for wview install. If "--sysconfdir=xxx" is given to the configure script, it will override the $prefix value for location of the configuration files. If "--localstatedir=xxx" is given, it will override the $prefix value for location of the data files for wview.
Most source installs will want to use the default prefix "/usr/local" (by not specifying any location parameters to configure).

There are two file system installation locations of importance for wview. The configuration "tree" is found at: $prefix/etc/wview and the data "tree" is located at: $prefix/var/wview. The configuration tree includes the SQLite3 configuration database, file generation configuration including templates and several file to support SQL export activities. The data tree contains the generated web site (img), all archived weather data (archive) and NOAA files.
Each installation section below will indicate the default locations for these trees.

 Debian/ubuntu/kubuntu

The Debian Advanced Packaging Tool (APT) is the most comprehensive and mature unix package management system in existence. APT is the compelling reason many linux users (such as me) use Debian or a Debian derivative for their linux distribution of choice.
radlib and wview are now available in the wviewweather.com APT repository.
You may also install radlib and wview from source.

 APT Installation

The easiest method to install wview on a debian or ubuntu/kubuntu server is to use the debian packages provided by the wviewweather.com APT repository:

  1. Architectures supported: i386, amd64, armel, powerpc, armhf
  2. Add the wviewweather.com repository to your /etc/apt/sources.list:
    Edit /etc/apt/sources.list and add the following lines to the bottom of the file:

    For debian squeeze:
    deb http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/squeeze squeeze main
    deb-src http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/squeeze squeeze main

    For debian wheezy:
    deb http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/wheezy wheezy main
    deb-src http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/wheezy wheezy main

    For ubuntu/kubuntu lucid:
    deb http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/lucid lucid main
    deb-src http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/lucid lucid main

    For ubuntu/kubuntu precise:
    deb http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/precise precise main
    deb-src http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/precise precise main

    For ubuntu/kubuntu quantal:
    deb http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/quantal quantal main
    deb-src http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/quantal quantal main

    For ubuntu/kubuntu raring:
    deb http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/raring raring main
    deb-src http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/raring raring main

    For ubuntu/kubuntu saucy:
    deb http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/saucy saucy main
    deb-src http://www.wviewweather.com/apt/saucy saucy main
  3. Note: important messages are output as part of the wview package install which might be hidden when using a GUI tool for APT such as synaptic. The command line tool apt-get allows you to see all installation messages.
    Use your favorite APT tool, such as apt-get, aptitude, synaptic, adept, etc. to upgrade your package list and install wview:

    apt-get method:
    #> sudo apt-get update
    #> apt-cache search wview
    (wview should be listed now)

    #> sudo apt-get install wview
    (this will install radlib and any other missing prerequisites)
    (when done, wview will be fully installed, configured and running as the station simulator)
    (you can stop it any time using "sudo /etc/init.d/wview stop")
  4. wview will be running the simulator once installation is complete. When you are ready to "go live" with your station, use the "wviewcleardata" utility to purge all simulated data:

    #> sudo wviewcleardata
    (this will purge all archive records, delete the HILOW, history and NOAA databases)
    (leaving a clean weather data environment for your station)
    WARNING - take care using this utility, it does not backup data so you should do that yourself prior to running it if there is any possibility you want to recover/keep the old weather data!
That's it! It could not be easier and all tasks included in the source script described below have been done for you. It has the added benefit of extremely easy upgrades (the debian APT way). This is the recommended installation method.

wview Run Environment:
Configuration: /etc/wview
Data: /var/lib/wview
wviewmgmt: /var/lib/wviewmgmt linked at /var/www/wviewmgmt
Weather web site: /var/lib/wview/img linked at /var/www/weather


Upgrading an APT Install

#> sudo apt-get update (this updates the package list)
#> sudo apt-get -u upgrade (this upgrades any out of date packages, including wview or radlib)
(if you are asked if you want to replace certain "config" files, it is safe to say "Y")


Converting a Source Install (tarball) to an APT Install

The debian packages install to different locations than the old default /usr/local prefix. Avoid running "make uninstall" with the old distro until you have secured your data. Make backups of your config and data trees to somewhere safe - like your home directory.
For example:

#> sudo mkdir -p ~/wview-save
#> sudo mkdir -p ~/wview-save/etc
#> sudo mkdir -p ~/wview-save/var
#> sudo /etc/init.d/wview stop
#> sudo rm -rf /usr/local/var/wview/archive/wview-history.sdb
#> sudo rm -rf /etc/init.d/wview
#> sudo cp -rf /usr/local/etc/wview ~/wview-save/etc
#> sudo cp -rf /usr/local/var/wview ~/wview-save/var
#> sudo rm -f /var/www/weather (this should be a symbolic link)
#> sudo rm -rf /var/www/wviewmgmt (this should be a symbolic link)
#> cd [radlib_old_source_location] (the old distro source directory, typically /usr/local/src/radlib-X.Y.Z)
#> sudo make uninstall
#> cd [wview_old_source_location] (the old distro source directory, typically /usr/local/src/wview-X.Y.Z)
#> sudo make uninstall
#> sudo apt-get install wview
(if it asks about replacing /etc/init.d/wview, say "Y")
(at this point the simulator will be configured and running)
#> sudo /etc/init.d/wview stop
#> sudo cp -f ~/wview-save/var/wview/archive/*.* /var/lib/wview/archive
#> sudo cp -rf ~/wview-save/etc/wview/* /etc/wview
#> sudo wviewconfig
(or use wviewmgmt to update the generation and html paths)
HTMLGEN_IMAGE_PATH - /var/lib/wview/img
HTMLGEN_HTML_PATH - /etc/wview/html
(You may need to update Alarm or FTP or SSH paths as well)
#> sudo /etc/init.d/wview start

That should do it. Just don't use uninstall without securing your config and database files first.

Removing or Purging APT Installs

You can remove the wview installation *without* removing your data and configuration files:

#> sudo apt-get remove wview

You can also purge everything including generated data and configuration:

#> sudo apt-get --purge remove wview

Just be aware that "purge" removes everything. It will prompt you first to make sure that is what you want to do. It is pretty idiot-proof.


 Source Installation

The wview distribution includes a Debian install script and an upgrade script which greatly simplify installing and keeping wview up to date the old-fashioned way: from source. The latest versions of these scripts can always be downloaded from Sourceforge:

wview-install-debian
wview-update


There is no need to download or build wview or its prerequisites directly as the install script will take care of all that for you.
The wview-update script can be used for any unix system with tar, wget and a reasonable build environment installed.

To use the wview-install-debian script:

  1. Download wview-install-debian

  2. Make the script executable:
    #> chmod +x wview-install-debian

  3. Execute the script with root permissions:
    #> sudo ./wview-install-debian

There will be a few choices to make along the way. Answer "yes" to any package management questions.
The script will invoke wviewconfig and wviewhtmlconfig to do initial configuration for your station, environment and desired features. These will also require input in order to proceed.

wview Run Environment:
Configuration: /usr/local/etc/wview
Data: /usr/local/var/wview
wviewmgmt: /usr/local/var/wviewmgmt linked at /var/www/wviewmgmt
Weather web site: /usr/local/var/wview/img linked at /var/www/weather

To update wview installations of version 5.4.0 or later:

  1. Download wview-update

  2. Make the script executable:
    #> chmod +x wview-update

  3. Stop wview:
    #> sudo /etc/init.d/wview stop

  4. Execute the script with root permissions:
    #> sudo ./wview-update

  5. Start wview:
    #> sudo /etc/init.d/wview start

 Mac OSX

The MacPorts package management system for Mac OSX (Darwin) includes source packages for radlib and wview. This greatly simplifies installing wview and keeping it up to date.

Note: For a step-by-step procedure to install wview and all prerequisites (including configuration of apache2 and PHP) please see the excellent tutorial:
Mac OS X (10.6.x) Installation Instructions (Advanced)

To install wview:

  1. Install XCode for your OSX version: Download XCode

  2. Install MacPorts: Download MacPorts

  3. Update the ports list:
    #> sudo port -d selfupdate

  4. Update your ports:
    #> sudo port upgrade outdated

  5. Install wview (and all prerequisites):
    #> sudo port install wview

This will install all prerequisites and wview.

wview Run Environment:
Configuration: /opt/local/etc/wview
Data: /opt/local/var/wview
wviewmgmt: /opt/local/var/wviewmgmt
Weather web site: /opt/local/var/wview/img

To update OSX wview installations:

  1. Stop wview:
    #> sudo /sbin/SystemStarter stop "wview"

  2. Update the ports list:
    #> sudo port -d selfupdate

  3. Update your ports:
    #> sudo port upgrade outdated

  4. Start wview:
    #> sudo /sbin/SystemStarter start "wview"

 Build/Install From Sources

If you are going to install from source, please take care to install the prerequisites and follow these instructions carefully.

Note:

 Prerequisites

Note: Some of these libraries may be represented as "-dev" or "-devel" or similar in your package management utility, i.e., "libcurl-dev". If they are, you should install the dev version in order to get the development libraries that radlib/wview needs.

 Procedure

For purposes of these instructions, the following conventions are used:
[wview_bld_path] is the staging area for building wview (i.e., /usr/local/src).
wview-x.y.z is the version of wview you are installing.

  1. Extract in the staging location [wview_bld_path]:
    #> cd [wview_bld_path]
    #> tar zxvf wview-x.y.z.tar.gz

  2. Change directory to the wview root source directory:
    #> cd [wview_bld_path]/wview-x.y.z

  3. Run the configure script to create the build files for your platform.
    Important configure options:
    --prefix   (default: /usr/local) Controls the installation root for wview.
    --prefix=/ --bindir=/usr/bin --exec-prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var/lib --libdir=/usr/lib    Configure options to use when building from source after a Debian APT installation. This places all binaries and support files in the same locations as the Debian package. This is handy when modifying source code or testing proposed releases.
    A typical new installation:
    #> ./configure

    A typical upgrade:
    #> ./configure

  4. Build:
    #> make

  5. Install:
    #> sudo make install

  6. Configure to run at system boot (if new install):

    Copy the appropriate wview start script to the proper location for your system:
    SuSE cp wview-x.y.z/examples/SuSE/wview /etc/init.d
    FreeBSD cp wview-x.y.z/examples/FreeBSD/wview /etc/rc.d
    FedoraCore cp wview-x.y.z/examples/FedoraCore/wview /etc/rc.d/init.d
    Debian cp wview-x.y.z/examples/Debian/wview /etc/init.d
    Make sure it is executable:
    SuSE chmod +x /etc/init.d/wview
    FreeBSD chmod +x /etc/rc.d/wview
    FedoraCore chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/wview
    Debian chmod +x /etc/init.d/wview
    Create a symbolic link in the runlevel directory you boot your server:
    SuSE cd /etc/init.d/rc3.d; ln -s ../init.d/wview S99wview
    FedoraCore cd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d; ln -s ../init.d/wview S99wview
    Debian update-rc.d wview defaults 99

  7. Add radlib location to shared library cache:
    If you get errors similar to:
    /usr/local/bin/wviewd: error while loading shared libraries:
    ibrad.so.0: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
    you need to either copy the latest wview start script from the distro (examples/[your_distro]/wview) to your start script location (see the preceeding section), or add the radlib shared library location (/usr/local/lib) to your shared library cache (see /etc/ld.so.conf) and run ldconfig.
  8. Add rsyslog configuration file:
    If your OS/distribution uses rsyslog as the system log utility, you can configure it to create a wview log file.
    #> sudo cp wview-x.y.z/examples/rsyslog/99-wview.conf /etc/rsyslog.d
    Then restart rsyslog:
    #> sudo /etc/init.d/rsyslog restart (or similar based on your run environment)
wview Run Environment:
Configuration: /usr/local/etc/wview
Data: /usr/local/var/wview
wviewmgmt: /usr/local/var/wviewmgmt linked at /var/www/wviewmgmt
Weather web site: /usr/local/var/wview/img linked at /var/www/weather

 Building for Non-Native Targets (Cross Compilation)

See the scripts in the cross-compile folder for "./configure" alternatives. This directory contains example configure scripts for cross compilation. libz, libpng, libgd, librad and wview scripts are included (and should be built in that order). Use these scripts instead of "./configure" to configure these libraries for cross compilation. These scripts configure for arm-linux targets but can be edited for other targets.

Note: The config-radlib-arm-linux and config-wview-arm-linux scripts will accept up to 3 additional configure options.

The general build sequence is:

#> ./config-[pkgname]-arm-linux
#> make
#> sudo make install

All libs and applications are installed in the toolchain root, defined in the config scripts.

The general build order is:
libz
libpng
libgd2
libreadline5
libsqlite
libusb
librad
wview

 Troubleshooting

If your build fails it is almost certainly because you are missing a prerequisite. Messages such as "unable to open gd.h" followed by a host of other errors means you are missing libgd2-dev. It is not sufficient to have the run time library only installed (libgd2), you also need the development package installed.
Also note that when a library or other dependency is missing, the first error message is generally the one which will tell you what you are missing.

 Chapter 3: Configuration

wview configuration is often where users cause themselves problems. wview is extremely configurable but with that flexibility comes more complexity and more opportunities to misunderstand the purpose of the parameters and their range of possible values. It is best to not change a parameter's value until you are confident you know what/why you are doing it. New wview installations default to the station simulator and a base working configuration. Use that as a starting point and limit the number of parameters you change simultaneously until you become more comfortable with wview.

 Overview

wview configuration can be accomplished from the command line (wviewconfig) or using the web interface (wviewmgmt). wviewmgmt requires a working http server with PHP and sqlite3 support. It is the easiest method once the http/PHP/SQLite3 prerequisites are installed and confirmed. Many linux distributions come with apache2+PHP+SQLite3 support already enabled.

 Command Line Interface

The command line interface (CLI) for wview configuration is wviewconfig. It is installed when wview is installed.

#> sudo wviewconfig
(this will start an interactive session - take your time)

 HTML Interface (wviewmgmt)

wviewmgmt is an html/java/php web site designed to provide a graphical interface for wview configuration. It also provides system status information.

Local server access:
Enter the URL: http://localhost/wviewmgmt/login.php
The default password is "wview" (you should change this).

Remote server access: Enter the URL: http://[remote_host_or_IP]/wviewmgmt/login.php

 Getting It to Work

 Logging In

There is only one wviewmgmt user so only a password is required to log in. By default the password is "wview".

 System Status Page

This page displays the current status (running/not running) of wview as well as certain database record counts. You may also change the wviewmgmt password on this page.

 Services Page

This page allows you to select which wview services to be run. If you disable all services, you will have an archiving-only wview server which stores archive and HILOW data which could be retrieved periodically for post processing.
It also allows system log verbosity to be selected by service.
You can configure which wview processes are monitored by the wview process monitor.

 Station Page

This page allows the configuration of the station type and interface settings. Station presets, timing parameters and location can be configured. See Chapter 4: Station Setup for station-specific information.

Note: If you have a WeatherlinkIP datalogger, you will need to select a static IP address and configure the datalogger with it. See the section Davis Vantage Pro for more details on this.

Station-specific Parameters: Some parameters are specific to a particular station type. They are displayed or hidden based on the station type selected.

 File Generation Page

Station name and location can be set for file generation. Other configuration settings for generation and certain text settings are also configured here.

 Alarms Page

Up to 10 alarms may be defined on this page.

 FTP Page

This page allows configuration for FTP export of generated files and images.

 SSH Page

This page allows configuration for SSH export of generated files and images.

 CWOP Page

This page allows configuration for Citizens Weather Observer Program (CWOP) participation.

 HTTP Services Page

Weather Underground and Weather For You participation is configured on this page.

 Calibration Page

wview supports calibration of certain weather data to compensate for poor or faulty station sensors.

 SQL Export Page

wview supports the export of the archive and HILOW databases to MySQL or PostgreSQL database servers.

 Chapter 4: Station Setup

This chapter describes any specific setup necessary for supported weather stations. It also describes any data tags that are unique for a given station.

 Simulator

The station simulator provides a way to demo the wview software without a connection to an external station. It generates fake sensor readings so the capabilities of wview including the weather web site generation can be observed before going live with a station.

There is no specific setup for the station simulator.

 Virtual

The Virtual weather station allows you to run a wview server which connects to another remote wview server via the datafeed TCP/IP socket interface. Using the datafeed capabilities of the remote server, the virtual server can generate files and web sites based on the remote station's data. The remote station can be a low power device just running the station interface process (wviewd) and the alarm process to serve the data to the virtual wview server.

Note: It is imperative that both the remote and local wview servers are running the same version of wview in case LOOP or ARCHIVE data definitions have been modified.

To configure the virtual and remote servers (on the virtual server's wviewmgmt Station page):

On the remote server: Notes:

 Davis Vantage Pro

If you are installing a new VP console, there are a few initial settings that you need to set up so that your weather station and wview operate properly. Configuration of archive interval, station location (elevation, latitude and longitude) and your desired rain season start month must be set up before you start wview for the first time.
Below is a short description of each of these:

Archive Interval - this determines how often the VP console will generate an archive record and store it in its internal memory. These records are retrieved by wview from the console and stored in the archive files (and the archive database, if database archiving is enabled). The valid values are: 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 (minutes). Keep in mind that the shorter the archive interval, the more records that will be generated. More records means a shorter time span for internal storage in the VP console memory and larger archive files on the wview server disk (and larger database tables if stored in a database). I use an archive interval of 5 minutes. TO AVOID HAVING TO DELETE ALL OF YOUR ARCHIVE DATA LATER IN ORDER TO CHANGE THE ARCHIVE INTERVAL, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT YOU MAKE THIS CHOICE CAREFULLY AND NOT CHANGE IT AFTER ARCHIVE DATA HAS BEEN STORED BY WVIEW. This does NOT effect how often HTML files containing current conditions are generated or the up to the minute values they contain, this is controlled by the configuration value "Generate Interval" on the wviewmgmt File Generation page. It will effect the granularity of your charts for the last 24 hours.

Elevation - this is given in feet above (or below) sea level. This is the recommended way to calibrate your barometer.

Lat/Long - this describes the location of your weather station.

Rain Season Start - this defines the first month of each year when yearly rain totals will begin. Most people will use a value of "1" here.

In order to set these parameters in the VP console, the "vpinstall" script is provided with the wview distribution. Note that all of these can be configured using the On-Screen VP console setup utility. After building and installing wview, the vpinstall script can be found in ${exec-prefix}/bin (usually /usr/local/bin). It is an interactive script which queries you for these initial values then uses the vpconfig utility to commit them to your new VP console. Once completed, it is advisable to wait 10 minutes or so before starting wview for the first time as it takes the VP console a little while to "digest" the new settings, in particular for the barometer.


WeatherlinkIP Datalogger Setup: If you have purchased the WeatherlinkIP datalogger you will need to do some additional setup.
You must configure the WeatherlinkIP datalogger with a static IP address on your local network segment. By default the datalogger is configured for DHCP to obtain its IP address. The trick is to find what address it has been assigned by your wired or wireless router. I used the utility on my router's DHCP status page to find the IP address given to the datalogger after I had connected the ethernet cable and powered it on. My intranet is 10.0.0.0/255.255.255.0 and the datalogger had been assigned 10.0.0.116. Unfortunately the Vantage Vue console does not provide this information directly. Once you have the IP address (a.b.c.d), enter the URL "http://a.b.c.d" in your favorite browser. A very simple configuration screen is provided by the datalogger. wview defaults to port 22222 for ethernet interfaces (as of 5.18.0) so no need to modify it. Disable the "Upload to weatherlink.com" option and select "Save Configuration". Then select "Use the following IP Address" and enter your local network information. Select "Save IP Settings". You will need to modify the URL to use the new static IP address you selected if you need to get back to this configuration (which you probably will not). Remember the IP address you selected so you can enter it in the station configuration page of wviewmgmt. Note: you cannot access the datalogger configuration page while any software is connected to the datalogger (wview or Weatherlink).


Extended Sensors: If you do not have a Vantage Pro Plus or Vantage Pro2 Plus and you haven't added additional sensors ($$) to your VP, then there is no reason to enable Plus extended data on the wviewmgmt Station page or to enable extended sensor generation in images.conf. You will only be wasting CPU cycles as the extended sensors will not be populated with anything meaningful.

The Vantage Pro Plus adds Solar Radiation, UV and Evapotranspiration (ET) sensors with the potential to add other sensors. wview provides support for historical charts (day, month and year) for the following VP Plus sensors:

Solar Radiation
UV
ET
LeafTemp1
LeafTemp2
LeafWetness1
LeafWetness2
SoilTemp1
SoilTemp2
SoilTemp3
SoilTemp4
ExtraHumidity1
ExtraHumidity2
ExtraTemp1
ExtraTemp2
ExtraTemp3
SoilMoisture1
SoilMoisture2
SoilMoisture3
SoilMoisture4

wview also can generate current condition buckets for Radiation, UV and ET. See the $prefix/etc/wview/images.conf file for optional images which can be generated.

To enable extended sensors:

  1. Update wview configuration on the File Generation Page, enabling "Generate Extended Sensor Values?".
  2. Reconfigure the HTML templates by executing "sudo wviewhtmlconfig".
  3. Customize the templates in $prefix/etc/wview/html if needed.

vpconfig Usage

Note 1: It is not advisable to use vpconfig to change the archive interval or rain season start after the initial configuration (using vpinstall). This will skew your rain season totals or render your archived data unusable. If you do change the archive interval after records have been stored by wview, you will need to delete all archive data in $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-archive.sdb before restarting wview.

Note 2: You MUST stop wview before using vpconfig to view or change settings!

Usage: vpconfig [station_dev] [command] [cmnd_args]

    station_dev  serial device the VP console is connected to:
                  FreeBSD: /dev/cuaa0 - /dev/cuaa4
                  Linux:   /dev/ttyS0 - /dev/ttyS4

    command      command to execute, one of:
                   show
                     - retrieve and display VP console config
                   cleararchive
                     - clear the archive memory without changing the interval
                   setinterval [interval in minutes]
                     - set the archive interval (this clears the archive memory)
                   setelevation [elevation in feet]
                     - set the station elevation (feet) - use this to adjust barometer
                   setgain [0 for off, 1 for on]
                     - sets the gain of the radio receiver
                   setlatlong [latitude (negative for S)] [longitude (negative for W)]
                     - set the station latitude and longitude in tenths of a degree
                   setrainseasonstart [month (1-12)]
                     - set the month that the yearly rain total begins
        

 Vaisala WXT510

The Vaisala WXT510 Weather Transmitter is a semi-professional instrument about the size of a 2 liter bottle of Coke. Ultrasonic wind speed sensors, non-tipping rain/hail measurement and low power are a few of the nice features of this station. A very simple NMEA 0183 protocol implementation is provided to retrieve the readings.

Preparing a WXT510 For wview:
The wxt510config utility simply autobauds the WXT510 until it finds the station's current comm settings then resets the station to 19200-8-N-1. wview startup will do the remaining initialization of the station.
To run it, determine what serial device your station is connected to, then as root execute:

#> sudo wxt510config [station_dev]
(where [station_dev] is something like /dev/ttyS0, /dev/cuaa0, /dev/ttyUSB0, etc.)

Additional Data Tags (see examples/html/parameterlist.txt for tag format):
wxt510Hail
wxt510Hailrate
wxt510HeatingTemp
wxt510HeatingVoltage
wxt510SupplyVoltage
wxt510ReferenceVoltage
wxt510RainDuration
wxt510RainPeakRate
wxt510HailDuration
wxt510HailPeakRate
wxt510Rain
wxt510RainDurationMin
wxt510HailDurationMin

 Texas Weather Instruments (TWI)

All Texas Weather Instruments stations with serial interface support use the same simple protocol. wview autobauds the station each time it starts so there is literally nothing to configure on the station's console. wview should just work. The station should be configured to output Imperial (US) units. Select the "TWI" station type when configuring wview.

 Oregon Scientific WMR918/928NX/968

The Oregon Scientific WMR918 Series (WMR918/928N/968) Personal Weather Station is a low-cost consumer grade station.

There is no preparation required - just connect to your serial port and go!

Notes:

Additional Data Tags (see examples/html/parameterlist.txt for tag format):
wmr918Humid3
wmr918Pool
wmr918Tendency
wmr918WindBatteryStatus
wmr918RainBatteryStatus
wmr918OutTempBatteryStatus
wmr918InTempBatteryStatus
wmr918poolTempBatteryStatus
wmr918extra1BatteryStatus
wmr918extra2BatteryStatus
wmr918extra3BatteryStatus

 Oregon Scientific WMR88/WMR88A/WMR100/WMR100N/WMR200/WMRS200/RMS300/RMS600

The Oregon Scientific WMR88/WMR88A/WMR100/WMR100N/WMR200/WMRS200/RMS300/RMS600 Series Personal Weather Stations are a low-cost consumer grade station. Select the "WMRUSB" station type when configuring wview.
Like their older serial interface brethren, the WMR USB stations "blast out" the sensor data as opposed to responding to commands like most reasonable protocols for other stations. This fact coupled with the reality that the USB HID interface allows no event-driven mechanism to know when there is data ready to be read requires wview to poll the USB interface periodically in order to receive the unsolicited sensor data packets from the console. wview requires one packet from each sensor suite (Temp, Wind, Pressure and Rain) before it can complete initialization. If one or more of your sensors is out of range, the battery is weak or the sensor is malfunctioning, wview will not function properly, i.e., it will not complete initialization.

There is no preparation required - just connect to your USB port and go!

Notes:

Additional Data Tags (see examples/html/parameterlist.txt for tag format):
The WMR stations can support up to 8 additional Temperature/Humidity sensors. The tags will be populated if you have the sensors. Sensor IDs 0 and 1 are used for inside and outside main sensors respectively, so WMR sensor ID 2 is stored in extraTemp sensor 1, etc.
genExtraTemp1 - genExtraTemp8
genExtraHumidity1 - genExtraHumidity8

 La Crosse WS-2300/2308/2310/2315

The La Crosse WS-2300 Series (WS-2300/2308/2310/2315) Personal Weather Station is a low-cost consumer grade station. Although it is proud to be wireless, it is best implemented "cabled" between the sensors and the console. When cabled, it will update the console with new data every 8 seconds. When ran wirelessly, it updates on the order of minutes, which is nearly useless for our purposes.

There is no preparation required - just connect to your serial port and go!

Note: The La Crosse weather stations do not provide Rain Rate calculation, so wview provides it for you. It is a very simple implementation which looks at the last 5 minutes of rainfall and scales it up to one hour.

 Fine Offset WH1080 (and many variants)

The Fine Offset 1080 Series (including Fine Offset: WH-1080, WH-1081; Watson: W-8681, WX-2008; National Geographic: 265 NE; Elecsa: 6975, 6976; Ambient Weather: WS-1080, WS-1090, WS-2080; Tycon: TP1080WC) Personal Weather Station is a low-cost consumer grade station.
The sensors will update no faster than once per minute so there is no need for a faster "STATION_POLL_INTERVAL" than 60 seconds.

Note: The Fine Offset weather stations do not provide Rain Rate calculation, so wview provides it for you. It is a very simple implementation which looks at the last 5 minutes of rainfall and scales it up to one hour.

 Honeywell TE923W (and many variants)

The Honeywell TE923W (including Hideki, Nexus, Mebus, Irox, Honeywell, Cresta TE923, TE923W, TE821W, WXR810, DV928) Personal Weather Station is a low-cost consumer grade station sold under many brand names and models around the world. These have by far the best quality of sensors and console for stations in the $200 or less category. It is highly recommended.
The sensor data from the console will update no faster than once per minute so there is no need for a faster "STATION_POLL_INTERVAL" than 60 seconds.

Note: The TE923 weather stations do not provide Rain Rate calculation, so wview provides it for you. It is a very simple implementation which looks at the last 5 minutes of rainfall and scales it up to one hour.

Additional Data Tags (see examples/html/parameterlist.txt for tag format):
The TE923 stations can support up to 4 additional Temperature/Humidity sensors. The tags will be populated if you have the sensors. Sensor ID 0 is used for the primary outside temperature sensor, so sensor ID 2 is stored in extraTemp sensor 1, etc.
genExtraTemp1 - genExtraTemp4
genExtraHumidity1 - genExtraHumidity4
genExtraTempBatteryStatus1 - genExtraTempBatteryStatus4
genExtraUVBatteryStatus
genExtraWindBatteryStatus
genExtraRainBatteryStatus

 Chapter 5: File Generation

wview file generation is the process of replacing well-defined wview data tags (defined in parameterlist.txt) found in template files with their current values. These template files can be the HTML templates used for the default wview weather data web site or they can be any user-defined files containing one or more data tags (PHP, XML, etc.).

Configuration files referenced in this chapter:

$prefix/etc/wview/html-templates.conf - lists the template files in $prefix/etc/wview/html to be generated.

$prefix/etc/wview/images.conf - lists the weather images (buckets, graphs, dials) to be generated.

$prefix/etc/wview/forecast.conf - configures forecast text for Vantage Pro stations.

 Overview

Generic File Generation
For any template file named "example.[ext]x" and listed in html-templates.conf, wview will generate a file named "example.[ext]". For example, "myscript.phpx" listed in html-templates.conf and found in $prefix/var/wview/html will have all wview tags replaced and the resulting file will be named "myscript.php". The resulting files are stored at the location specified on the wviewmgmt File Generation page: "Generation Target Path".
Please note that if you are using FTP/SSH to transfer your files you will need to add rules for any new extensions you want to support in wview configuration.

HTML File Generation and the wview Web Site
The default generation model for wview is to generate a weather web site based on a series of HTML file templates and images defined in images.conf. For any template file named "example.htx" and listed in html-templates.conf, wview will generate a file named "example.htm".

 Customization

Notes:
Changing HTML templates in $prefix/etc/wview/html does not require a restart of wview. The changes you make will take effect at the next htmlgend generation cycle.

Changing the config files images.conf, html-templates.conf and (if supported) forecast.conf does not require a restart of wview but does require a HUP signal to be sent to htmlgend to cause these files to be re-read. Do this as follows (this will also toggle log verbosity):

#> sudo kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/htmlgend.pid`

Changes to extended data or web site skin selection is done using the wviewhtmlconfig script provided with wview. If changing to extended data (adding UV, ET, radiation) first enable "Generate Extended Sensor Values?" on the wviewmgmt File Generation page (and save changes) prior to running wviewhtmlconfig. It will automatically determine the extended data setting from the configuration database. It is interactive and will save your old $prefix/etc/wview/html directory to $prefix/etc/wview/html-DATE.TIME.
As wview users contribute new skins they will be added to the wview distribution and supported by the wviewhtmlconfig script. For information on creating your own skin, see the file "$prefix/etc/wview/html/Template-Skins-HOWTO.txt".
#> sudo wviewhtmlconfig

Macro File Inclusion
wview supports template macro file inclusion in template files. The meta-tag is !--include filename.xxx-- (brackets omitted). Any template macro file that is to be included in one or more template files should be listed BEFORE any templates including it in the $prefix/etc/wview/html-templates.conf configuration file. There is no restriction on the levels of inclusion, just be sure you specify macro templates early in the html-templates.conf file. The wview default web site templates utilize several header macro files.


Language
HTML template files (in $prefix/etc/wview/html) should be customized to your language and your design preferences. The configuration file html-templates.conf specifies the template files to be used for generation. You may add or remove from this list as needed.
Weather image captions can be edited in the $prefix/etc/wview/images.conf file for your language preferences.


Metric Units
The configuration parameter on the File Generation Page "Enable Metric Units For Generation?" allows configuration of metric units. If set to "yes" it will cause wview to output all images (buckets and charts) as well as all values for HTML tags in metric units.

The units are:
Temperature ........... Celsius
Barometer ............. Millibars
Wind Speed ............ Kilometers per hour
Rain .................. Millimeters or Centimeters

images.conf can be edited to translate the English labels, titles, and units to any language. By editing this file and the HTML template files, any language can be supported by wview. In fact one can easily switch back and forth between US and metric units by toggling this configuration parameter and restarting wview.
Note:
All weather data in the SQLite3 database is still stored in US format - the conversions are only done for real time image and HTML file generation.


XML and RSS Feed
XML templates should be named "*.xtx" and placed in $prefix/etc/wview/html. An example RSS feed template is included in the distro: $prefix/etc/wview/html/wxrss.xtx. An href to it is included in all home page template examples so the RSS feed may be discovered while visiting your home page. wxrss.xtx should be edited for your site.


Forecast Support
The Vantage Pro stations produce a forecast rule value and an icon specifier. The data tags are !--forecastRule-- and !--forecastIcon-- (brackets omitted) respectively. The configuration file forecast.conf allows the user to define the icon files and text associated with the forecast rules. See the example forecast.conf file for details. The icon tag will be replaced by an image html construct pointing at the appropriate icon image file. The rule tag will be replaced by the corresponding text string defined in forecast.conf. Because these capabilities require 35 KB or more of memory (and I think the VP forecasts are hokey), they are disabled by default. To enable them, rename the file $prefix/etc/wview/forecast.conf-no-forecast to $prefix/etc/wview/forecast.conf. You must restart wview for this change to take effect.


Generic Tag Generation
The template file $prefix/etc/wview/html/parameterlist.htx is provided as an example of how to obtain all data tags and values through file generation. It could be copied/modified to a PHP template such that the generated file is appropriate for PHP inclusion. An XML template could also be developed. In this way wview can be used as a minimal generation engine to provide weather tags and post processing can be used in any environment you choose.


Pre/Post-Generation Scripts
The script file $prefix/etc/wview/pre-generate.sh (if it exists) will be executed by the htmlgend daemon immediately before the generation of all images and templates. The script file $prefix/etc/wview/post-generate.sh (if it exists) will be executed by the htmlgend daemon immediately following the generation of all images and templates. This can be used to perform custom transformations of generated images or files. It should NOT be used to perform network tasks such as FTP or other tasks which may block and interrupt execution of the htmlgend daemon.
Note: Empty generation scripts should be renamed so wview does not execute them, which in rare cases can cause zombie processes.

 Chapter 6: Exporting Generated Files

Based on your intended use for generated files, you may need to export them to a remote server. If your wview server is also the HTTP server in your setup, then a proper definition of the location specified on the wviewmgmt File Generation page: "Generation Target Path" may be all you require to publish your web site. This is the most straightforward approach. However, if it is not possible or desirable to run your HTTP server locally or if you have other plans for the files you generate, you may need to export them. wview supports FTP or SSH processes for file exportation. The wview ftp service tries to be somewhat intelligent: it maintains a "marker" file which contains the date/time of the last FTP update. It will only transfer files in your defined rules which are newer than that date. This conserves time and bandwidth.

 FTP

wview's ftp daemon no longer requires the tnftp utility. The curl library is used for direct transfer of files including a 20 second timeout per file transferred to avoid hang ups when the remote server stops responding.


Remote Server Directory Setup
wviewftpd will place all files it transfers into the [conf_directory] directory under your ftp login directory on the remote server.
[conf_directory] is the value of the "Remote Directory" configuration parameter on the FTP page. The curl library facilitates creating any remote directories needed so manual setup is not required.


Move Static Files to Server
It is no longer necessary to move static files manually. The new wview FTP service only sends files which have changed since the transfer, so all static files are sent on the initial transfer.


Configure wview FTP Service
The wviewmgmt FTP page allows configuration of remote_username, remote_password and remote_host as well as the conf_directory parameters. You should also enable the FTP service on the Services page.


Troubleshooting
If you are having problems and wish to get more feedback concerning the FTP transfers, do the following:


Common FTP Problems

Re-Transmitting All Local Files
The wview ftp service tries to be somewhat intelligent: it maintains a "marker" file which contains the date of the last FTP update. It will only transfer files in your defined rules which are newer than that date. This conserves time and bandwidth. To cause the wview ftp service to start over, resending all files in your defined rules, you must delete the marker file: $prefix/var/wview/ftp_marker. wview will send all files and save the new marker file at the next defined update interval.


 Secure File Transfer (rsync/ssh)

Notes:
wview also supports the secure shell protocol for secure file transfers. Using rsync, the wviewsshd service can export files or directories. rsync is more efficient than FTP because only changed files are transmitted. To work properly, the wview server must be able to login and/or execute commands on the destination server via ssh WITHOUT entering a password. This is accomplished by copying the wview server's root account shared ssh key to the remote server's login account.

Suggestion: Don't mix hostname with IP address for the remote server during the configuration below. Decide NOW whether you are going to use a hostname or an IP address, and use it consistently for all references to [remote_host] below. ssh does make a distinction when storing and verifying shared keys.

Placeholders:
[remote_host] - the host we want to update
[ssh_login_user] - the user account name on the [remote_host] we want to use for the ssh logins
[remote_test_dir] - remote directory to receive files, relative to the [ssh_login_user] login home directory ([ssh_login_user] must have write access to this directory)
[wview_server] - the wview host

I have included prompts of the form "username@host:# " to help clarify what is being executed on what host. Your actual shell prompts may be different, this is only for clarity in this procedure.

This procedure assumes compatible versions of ssh - version 1 and version 2 of openssh have compatability problems as well as with ssh.com versions 1 and 2. If you are having problems with the setup, I strongly suggest going to the following URL for advanced help: http://gentoo-wiki.com/SECURITY_SSH_without_a_password.


Prerequisites
Verify rsync is installed on the wview server:

root@[wview_server]:# whereis rsync
If that doesn't produce /usr/bin/rsync or similar, install rsync.

Verify rsync is installed on the remote host:
root@[wview_server]:# ssh -l [ssh_login_user] [remote_host]
[enter password]
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# whereis rsync Logout:
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# exit

If that doesn't produce /usr/bin/rsync or similar, install rsync.


Shared Key Setup
Generate a public/private key pair for the root user on the wview server (if it does not already exist) (execute as the root user):

root@[wview_server]:# mkdir -p ~/.ssh root@[wview_server]:# ssh-keygen -t rsa

Just hit enter for default values when asked questions. This will create two files, we are interested in the ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub file.

Transfer id_rsa.pub to [remote_host]. Use ftp, scp, email, floppy disk, whatever you want to get this file to the remote host.

Login to [remote_host] as [ssh_login_user] and append the contents of id_rsa.pub into ~/.ssh/authorized_keys (if authorized_keys does not exist, just rename id_rsa.pub to authorized_keys).

root@[wview_server]:# ssh -l [ssh_login_user] [remote_host]
[enter password]
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# mkdir -p ~/.ssh
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# cd ~/.ssh
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# cat id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# chmod 600 authorized_keys

Stay logged in - we need it for the next step.

As root on the wview server, ssh into [remote_host] as [ssh_login_user], answer "yes" if this is the first time, then logout. This sets the [remote_host] up in the wview server root account's "known_hosts" file.

root@[wview_server]:# ssh -l [ssh_login_user] [remote_host]
[no password should be required!]
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# exit

Proper Login Access
Finally, we need to set up ssh for the root user so that when [remote_host] is logged into, ssh uses [ssh_login_user] instead of root for the login on [remote_host]. This must be done for every [remote_host] entry on the wviewmgmt SSH page. This is what specifies which user account is used for the ssh login to each [remote_host].

Edit /root/.ssh/config and put the following at the top of the file (just create a new file if it does not exist):

Host [remote_host]
User [ssh_login_user]
Save and exit the file.

Mandatory Tests
These tests must succeed before proceeding.

As root on the wview server execute:

root@[wview_server]:# ssh [remote_host]

You should be logged in to [remote_host] as [ssh_login_user] without entering a password.

Exit the remote host shell:

[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# exit


You should now be able to remotely execute commands over ssh. Verify this by executing the date command from the wview server as root:

root@[wview_server]:# ssh [remote_host] date

This MUST execute without requiring a password. If it does not, go back to the beginning of shared key setup and double check your steps.

DO NOT proceed if you cannot login/execute commands remotely as [ssh_login_user] without a password. This is critical! There is much online documentation concerning ssh setup, this is only a bare-bones treatment of the subject.


Confirming rsync Functionality
Place files in $prefix/var/wview/img (if it is not already your "Generation Target Path" on the wviewmgmt File Generation page):

root@[wview_server]:# cp [some_test_files] $prefix/var/wview/img


Create/Verify the destination path on the remote server (as [ssh_login_user]):

root@[wview_server]:# ssh [remote_host]
(you are now logged in as [ssh_login_user] without a password, right?)
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# cd ~
(this is your ssh login directory - all destination paths are relative to this directory)
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# mkdir -p [remote_test_dir]
([remote_test_dir] is a relative path from the [ssh_login_user] login directory - it CANNOT contain a leading "slash")

Logout:
[ssh_login_user]@[remote_host]:# exit



Test rsync over ssh from the wview server:

root@[wview_server]:# rsync -aqz --rsh=ssh $prefix/var/wview/img/ [remote_host]:[remote_test_dir]


This should transfer the files you placed in $prefix/var/wview/img to the remote server in the [remote_test_dir] directory without a password being required. If it prompts for a password, you need to fix it. Left in this state, the wview ssh daemon will not provide any negative feedback because the stdin pipe that the rsync command prompts for a password on will not exist when invoked within wview and rsync will just exit quietly.

*****!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! IMPORTANT !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****
wview ssh file transfer capability will NOT work until you can
successfully execute this command from the wview server and verify
the file transfers on the remote server.
*****!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! IMPORTANT !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!*****


Configuring wview For Secure Transfers
Add transfer rules on the wviewmgmt SSH page.

Note: Each [remote_host] entry must have a corresponding "Host" entry in /root/.ssh/config which specifies the login account ([ssh_login_user]) to use for ssh. See section 14.3 above. Further, the procedures outlined above MUST be followed for each unique [remote_host] [ssh_login_user] combination.

You may change the SSH remote port number (default is 22) if required.
You may change the "-l" argument passed to ssh during remote login (this should not be required under normal conditions).

 Chapter 7: Advanced Topics

 Data Stored in SQLite3 (And How to Use It)

wview stores archive data in an SQLite3 database, namely $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-archive.sdb. This allows easy data viewing, modifying and post-processing.
HILOW data is stored in the database $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-hilow.sdb.
NOAA data is stored in the database $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-noaa.sdb.
This section will describe each of these databases including when and from what data they are created/updated.


Database Origins

   Database             Data Source                     How Generated
   ------------------   ------------------------------- -------------------------------
   wview-archive.sdb    WLK conversion via wlk2sqlite   Not autogenerated - requires
                        or stored run time by wview     an existing template (found at
                                                        $distro/bin/archive/wview-archive.sdb)

   wview-hilow.sdb      Archive records for initial     Autogenerated during wview init 
                        creation; LOOP packets during   (can be very slow on some platforms);
                        run time by wview               Offline creation via the hilowcreate
                                                        utility

   wview-noaa.sdb       HILOW records for initial       Autogenerated during wview init
                        creation and during run time    (not too long to generate)
        

What to Protect and Why


   wview-archive.sdb    - do NOT delete this database without a backup copy; this file
                          should be backed up for data security

   wview-hilow.sdb      - if you delete this file, wview will regenerate it but you
                          will lose the higher resolution of LOOP data as wview can
                          only use archive records for historical generation; this
                          file should be backed up for data security

   wview-noaa.sdb       - there is no data loss associated with deleting this database
                          and letting wview regenerate it during init
        

Archive Data

Conversion from WLK to SQLite3

A conversion utility, wlk2sqlite, is provided as part of the wview distribution.
Usage: wlk2sqlite source_directory [destination_directory]

source_directory is a required argument but can be the same as [destination_directory] - typically you can use the default archive file location for your installation, $prefix/var/wview/archive, since there is nothing destructive about the conversion with respect to the old WLK files, it only reads them.

So an example using the default prefix /usr/local would be:

#> sudo wlk2sqlite /usr/local/var/wview/archive

This places the newly populated SQLite3 archive database file in the proper location for wview 5.0.0 + operation.
Note: The conversion can take some time depending upon your platform and how much archive data you have.
When the conversion is complete, you have one coherent SQL archive database.


Viewing/Modifying Your Data With the sqlite3 CLI Utility

Let's look at your data:

#> sudo sqlite3 /usr/local/var/wview/archive/wview-archive.sdb
sqlite> .help
(This displays available commands; non-SQL commands begin with '.')

sqlite> select * from archive;
(This displays every column of every row)

sqlite> .schema archive
(This displays the CREATE statement for the archive table including column names)

sqlite> update archive set altimeter='777.88' where altimeter is NULL;
(This changes the value of column altimeter wherever it is NULL)

sqlite> .dump archive
(This dumps every row of the archive table in SQL format - very handy for moving your table from one platform to another)


Note: SQL syntax as recognized by SQLite3 is documented at: http://www.sqlite.org/lang.html


Moving Your Data to a Different Platform

This is where having our data in an SQL database starts to pay off.

Dump the archive table in SQL format:
#> sudo sqlite3 /usr/local/var/wview/archive/wview-archive.sdb .dump > ~/temp/[my_sql_filename]

Copy [my_sql_filename] to the target platform.

On the target platform:
#> sudo sqlite3 [new_database_filename] .read [my_sql_filename]
(This will execute each SQL statement in [my_sql_filename] for the new database [new_database_filename])

Done!

Why Can't I Just Move the Database File?

Physical platform and version of SQLite3 effect the format of the data in your archive database.

HILOW Data

Overview

The database $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-hilow.sdb will be created and back-filled using archive records for all records in the archive database.
This initialization process can take some time (8-12 minutes per year) but is only required during the first run of wview after an upgrade >= 5.1.0.
Once $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-hilow.sdb has been created and back-filled, wview will add each LOOP sample to the HILOW database.

Structure

The $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-hilow.sdb database has one table for each of the supported sensor types (i.e., inTemp, outTemp, ... rain, rainRate). Each table contains a record for each hour. The data starts with your earliest archive record.

The columns for each table are:

            dateTime         - timestamp for the beginning of the hour for this record
            low              - low value for this hour
            timeLow          - timestamp when the low occured
            high             - high value for this hour
            timeHigh         - timestamp when the high occured
            whenHigh         - additional value at the time of the high
                              (currently only used for wind direction when high wind occured)
            cumulative       - the sum of all samples in this record
            samples          - the number of samples in this record
        

Thus the average for an hour is cumulative/samples.

The windDir table has a unique structure. Each row includes the dateTime stamp and 20 integer bins. Each wind direction reading is tallied in one of the 20 bins, with each bin representing an 18-degree window. These bins are used for consensus averaging (the algorithm is found in windAverage.c).

Samples Stored

During creation, wview uses archive records to back-fill the HILOW database. During normal wview operation, LOOP samples are used to populate the HILOW database, providing a much higher granularity for detecting low and high events.

Regeneration

To regenerate the HILOW database:

#> /etc/init.d/wview stop
#> sudo rm $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-hilow.sdb
#> /etc/init.d/wview start

Note: Doing this will delete the LOOP sample resolution stored while wview is running, replacing it with back-filled archive data. For a station with a 5 minute archive interval and 30 second LOOP interval, that is the difference between 120 samples per hour and 12 samples per hour.



NOAA Data

Overview

The NOAA data is stored in an SQLite3 database. The database is generated based on records in the HILOW database (much faster and more accurate than archive records).

Structure

Each record in wview-noaa.sdb represents one day. The columns for the noaaHistory table are:

            dateTime         - timestamp for the beginning of the day for this record
            meanTemp         - average temperature for the day
            highTemp         - high temperature for the day
            highTempTime     - unix time of high
            lowTemp          - low temperature for the day
            lowTempTime      - unix time of low
            heatDegDays      - heat degree days for the day
            coolDegDays      - cool degree days for the day
            rain             - rain for the day
            avgWind          - average wind for the day
            highWind         - high wind for the day
            highWindTime     - unix time of high wind
            domWindDir       - dominant wind direction for the day
        


Regeneration

To regenerate the NOAA database:

#> /etc/init.d/wview stop
#> sudo rm $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-noaa.sdb
#> /etc/init.d/wview start



Day history Table (wview-history.sdb)

Overview

This table is generated internally by wview to avoid having to compute the daily summary records used for the yearly charts every time wview starts. This was not a time concern with the flat WLK files but became more costly when we started storing data in SQLite3. The external use or utility of this table is limited at best.

Regeneration

To regenerate the NOAA database:

#> /etc/init.d/wview stop
#> sudo rm $prefix/var/wview/archive/wview-history.sdb
#> /etc/init.d/wview start



SQLite3 Tips

To display the dateTime timestamp of any table as local time:

sqlite> select datetime(dateTime, 'unixepoch', 'localtime') from archive;


To fix any archive entries having 255 for the outHumidity:

sqlite> update archive set outHumidity = '50' where outHumidity = '255';

Note: If you modify records in the archive table, you will probably want to regenerate the HILOW tables



Purging All Weather Data

wview will be running the simulator once installation is complete. When you are ready to "go live" with your station or you just want to purge all weather data and start over, use the "wviewcleardata" utility to purge all weather data:

#> sudo wviewcleardata
(this will purge all archive records, delete the HILOW, history and NOAA databases)
(leaving a clean weather data environment for your station)

WARNING - take care using this utility, it does not backup data so you should do that yourself prior to running it if there is any possibility you want to recover/keep the old weather data!

 CWOP - Submitting Your Data to NOAA and the CWOP System

Overview

CWOP (Citizen Weather Observer Program, http://www.wxqa.com/) is a system by which individuals with weather stations and the proper software can submit their weather data to an APRS-based data storage system so that anyone, including NOAA, can use the data however they see fit. There are some really neat station display web sites including some java apps to look up station data, position, maps, etc.

As an example, see http://www.findu.com/cgi-bin/wxpage.cgi?call=CW4097 for my weather station.

CWOP participation requires registering for an APRS "Call Sign". Once you have configured wview for CWOP properly and confirmed your data online, you must contact the maintainers via email to confirm your registration. Then your data will be available for anyone to see and possibly be used in NOAA forecast models, etc. Pretty cool, eh?

When CWOP support is enabled and configured properly, wview will transmit a new WX packet to the APRS server every 10 minutes based on the last digit of your callsign.

wview supports the APRS-IS Rollover functionality by enforcing the definition of 3 APRS-IS server:port pairs - the goal is to avoid data loss to the CWOP system caused by connection errors. Select 3 different servers from the list at http://www.wxqa.com/activecwd.html - be advised, the arizona server is heavily burdened and often refuses connections.

Prerequisites


Setup

Register for an APRS Call Sign (unless you already have one):
http://www.findu.com/citizenweather/signup.html

Determine your accurate latitude and longitude:
http://www.topozone.com/viewmaps.asp

Enable CWOP support in wview:
Enable the CWOP service on the wviewmgmt Services page.

Configure the CWOP settings on the wviewmgmt CWOP page.

Check the wview logs for wvcwopd activity:

Look in /var/log/messages for something similar to:
"CWOP: configured to submit station CW4097 data to:"
"CWOP: Primary: cwop.aprs.net:23"
"CWOP: Secondary: cwop.aprs.net:23"
"CWOP: Tertiary: cwop.aprs.net:23"
during initialization, and:

"CWOP-sending: CW4097>APRS,TCPXX*,qAX,CW4097:@132235z3334.14N/09654.66W_284/002g005t093P002h40b10131.wview160"
every 10 minutes at the minute of your last CWOP ID digit.

Confirm your data in the CWOP stream:

Goto http://www.findu.com/cgi-bin/wxpage.cgi?call=CWxxxx where CWxxxx is your Call Sign. This should start displaying your weather data graphically with links on the left for looking at your raw data. Make sure it is all good - there is much information and many sites to visit to help you verify your data. Just start at http://www.wxqa.com/activecwd.html.

When all is good, send an email to the CWOP maintainers. Congratulations, you are now contributing data for the greater good!

 Wunderground/Weatherforyou - Submitting Your Data to Weather Underground and/or Weatherforyou

Overview

The Weather Underground (www.wunderground.com/) (Wunderground) is a privately held organization which provides many weather services - some free and some not. Among the free services is the ability to register your weather station and submit your data to them so that you can access your data and some nice graphs from their site. Weatherforyou.com is also a privately held outfit with similar capabilities to wunderground.

Prerequisites


Weather Underground

Register for a Weather Underground Station ID (unless you already have one):
http://www.wunderground.com/weatherstation/usersignup.asp

Determine your accurate latitude and longitude:
http://www.topozone.com/viewmaps.asp

Enable Wunderground support in wview:
Enable the HTTP service on the wviewmgmt Services page.

Configure the HTTP settings on the wviewmgmt HTTP Services page.

WeatherForYou

Register for a Weatherforyou Station ID (unless you already have one):
http://www.hamweather.net/weatherstations/

Determine your accurate latitude and longitude:
http://www.topozone.com/viewmaps.asp

Enable Weatherforyou support in wview:
Enable the HTTP service on the wviewmgmt Services page.

Configure the HTTP settings on the wviewmgmt HTTP Services page.

Check the wview logs for wvhttpd activity:

Your archive interval determines how often wview will update your weather data to the Wunderground/Weatherforyou systems. The first record should be generated at the next archive record generation after wview has started.

Look in /var/log/messages for something similar to:
"WUNDERGROUND: configured to submit station KTXCOLLI1 data to wunderground.com"
"WEATHERFORYOU: configured to submit station KTXCOLLI1 data to weatherforyou.com"

Confirm your data at the Wunderground server:

Goto http://www.wunderground.com/weatherstation/WXDailyHistory.asp?ID=XXXXXXX where XXXXXXX is your Wunderground Station ID. This should start displaying your weather data graphically and as a packet list.

Confirm your data at the Weatherforyou server:

Goto http://www.hamweather.net/weatherstations/pwsupdate.php?ID=XXXXXXX where XXXXXXX is your Weatherforyou Station ID. This should start displaying your weather data as a packet list.

 AWEKAS - Providing Your Data to Awekas

Overview

From the AWEKAS site ( http://www.awekas.at/en/index.php): "AWEKAS is an acronym for "Automatisches WEtterKArten System" (= automatic weather map system) and is, as the name already states, a system which produces overview maps from the data from private weather stations. The values are made available by the participants on their websites as Text or CSV files and are collected by the programme. The process is fully automatic and always provides maps with up to date weather situations." Simply put, if we provide the properly formatted HTML template to wview, AWEKAS will periodically poll the resulting HTML file for data and store it in their database for online retrieval.

Setup

Add (or uncomment if already there) the Awekas template in $prefix/etc/wview/html-templates.conf:

#> sudo vi $prefix/etc/wview/html-templates.conf

(Add the following lines or just remove the '#' from awekas_wl.htx if already there)
[snip]
###############################################################################
### AWEKAS Data Submission Template
###############################################################################

awekas_wl.htx
[/snip]

Save the file.


That's it! Once you have registered with AWEKAS this file should be polled by them periodically to update your station data.

 Sensor Calibration

Overview

Software calibration of basic sensors for any station type are configured using wviewconfig or the wviewmgmt web interface. Archive data and loop data used for highs/lows/averages is calibrated before being stored to file or sent to external data consumers (CWOP, WeatherUnderground, Alarms, etc.).

The format of the calibration equation is:
CSV = M * X + C, where:
CSV is the calibrated sensor value
M is the multiplier configuration value on the wviewmgmt Calibration page
X is the raw sensor value
C is the constant configuration value on the wviewmgmt Calibration page

Sensor List

The following sensors can be calibrated:

            Sensor                   Units
            ------------------       -----------------
            Barometer                US inches
            Station Pressure         US inches
            Altimeter                US inches
            Inside Temp              degrees fahrenheit
            Outside Temp             degrees fahrenheit
            Inside Humidity          %
            Outside Humidity         %
            Wind Speed               miles per hour (mph)
            Wind Direction           degrees (0-359)
            Rain                     US inches
            Rain Rate                US inches per hour
      

Pressure Calibration

Each station type produces one type of pressure sensor: Barometric Pressure (BP), Station Pressure (SP) or Altimeter (ALT). wview converts the sensor provided to the other two types algorithmically. It is only necessary to calibrate the pressure type provided by your station - wview will apply the calibration prior to the conversion to the other two types. Calibration values entered for the two derived types will be ignored by wview.

            Station           Pressure Type to Calibrate
            ----------------  --------------------------
            Vantage Pro       BP
            WXT510            SP
            WS-2300           SP
            WMR918            SP
      

Regardless of the type you are calibrating, you will generally be using the BP value to compare to local stations. Just remember to adjust the sensor calibration for the native pressure of your station.

Notes

Calibration is done in US units only. Station data is always received/ stored in imperial units. Thus calibration is done in imperial units. If you are a metric station, *figure out* what the imperial equivalent for your metric calibration would be, and use that for the calibration settings.

 Alarms

Overview

If the wviewmgmt Services page has "Enable Alarms (wvalarmd)" disabled when wvalarmd starts, it will exit and alarms will be disabled. If enabled, wvalarmd "registers" with the wviewd daemon to receive LOOP data at an interval determined by the "Data Push Interval (seconds)" parameter of the wviewmgmt Station page (the default is every 60 seconds). When a new LOOP data packet is received by wvalarmd, it checks all defined alarms to determine if an alarm has been triggered. If so, the alarm abatement counter is initialized and the alarm binary/script is invoked with the following arguments:

            argv[0]/$0         full path of binary/script being run
            argv[1]/$1         alarm type (see definitions below)
            argv[2]/$2         alarm threshold
            argv[3]/$3         value which triggered the alarm
      

It is not hard to conclude the following:

  1. Multiple alarm scripts may be defined for the same LOOP data value.
  2. Multiple LOOP data values may use the same binary/script since the alarm type, threshold and triggering value are all passed to the binary/script.
  3. wview alarms could be used as a data feed to another application which requires weather data updates, you could even run an "html-less" wview that does nothing more than archive weather data and feed current values to another application via wvalarmd.


Alarm Abatement

To control the frequency for which an alarm script/binary is invoked while the data type is exceeding the threshold, an alarm configuration parameter called Abatement is provided. This is simply the number of seconds after an alarm triggers to "hold off" or not invoke the alarm binary/script. Once this abatement period expires, a new alarm binary/script invocation will occur if the alarm is triggered.

Alarm Update Frequency

This is controlled by the "Data Push Interval (seconds)" parameter of the wviewmgmt Station page (the default is every 60 seconds). It is given in seconds. One should avoid setting it to anything less than 10 - I'm sure it would be fine, but you are not going to get new data updates from the VP Console any faster than once every 10 seconds.

Weather Data Update Frequency

This is controlled by the "Sensor Polling Interval (seconds)" parameter on the wviewmgmt Station page. This determines how often the wviewd daemon polls the station for current conditions. It is given in seconds and should not reasonably be set to anything less than 10 seconds, and must be an even divisor of 60.

Raw Data Feeds

wvalarmd implements a TCP socket server to accept connections for clients wanting a raw feed of loop packet data. See the section "Socket-Based Data Feeds" below for details.


Configuration

Configure the "Data Push Interval (seconds)" parameter of the wviewmgmt Station page to your requirements. This value is given in seconds. This determines how often wvalarmd will receive current conditions data.

Choose your station units type by indicating "Enable Metric Units for Alarms?" on the wviewmgmt Alarms page.

Specify your alarm definitions for up to 10 distinct alarms on the wviewmgmt Alarms page.

Scripts: $prefix/etc/wview/alarms/*.sh

If using notification scripts, they should be placed in $prefix/etc/wview/alarms and will receive the arguments described above when invoked.
There are a few example scripts in the distribution directory examples/alarms - these will be copied to $prefix/etc/wview/alarms for new installs.
If using custom binaries, make note of the arguments passed to the binary above.
The example scripts log alarm events to a log file: $prefix/var/wview/alarms/alarm.log. This may be a feature you want to keep - even if you are doing other things in your alarm notification scripts.

Alarm Type Definitions

            Type (wview-conf.sdb)     Value (passed to script/binary)
            ----------------------    -------------------------------
            Barometer                 0
            InsideTemp                1
            InsideHumidity            2
            OutsideTemp               3
            WindSpeed                 4
            TenMinuteAvgWindSpeed     5
            WindDirection             6
            OutsideHumidity           7
            RainRate                  8
            StormRain                 9
            DayRain                   10
            MonthRain                 11
            YearRain                  12
            TxBatteryStatus           13
            ConsoleBatteryVoltage     14
            DewPoint                  15
            WindChill                 16
            HeatIndex                 17
            Radiation                 18
            UV                        19
            ET                        20
            ExtraTemp1                21
            ExtraTemp2                22
            ExtraTemp3                23
            SoilTemp1                 24
            SoilTemp2                 25
            SoilTemp3                 26
            SoilTemp4                 27
            LeafTemp1                 28
            LeafTemp2                 29
            ExtraHumid1               30
            ExtraHumid2               31
      

Trying It Out

To get an idea how it works and to gain familiarity with configuration, do the following:

  1. Enable and configure alarms (Edit the Thresholds - configure a few alarms for thresholds very near or already "past" your current outside temperature.
  2. Watch the magic:
    #> tail -f $prefix/var/wview/alarms/alarm.log

 Socket-Based Data Feeds

Overview

For true data feeds, wvalarmd provides a socket server which listens on port 11011 of the wview server for connections. When a datafeed client connects on that port, wvalarmd adds the client to the datafeed client list. Then when loop data is received from wviewd, wvalarmd will write the loop packet into each datafeed client's socket, preceded by a start frame sequence. When an archive record is generated by the wviewd daemon wvalarmd will write it into each datafeed client's socket, preceded by a start frame sequence unique to archive data. Newly connected clients may request archive records in order to synchronize any records generated since the last connection. There is a unique start frame for this archive request packet which just contains the epoch time to indicate "get the next record after this time" (or alternatively, "this is the last record I have, give me the next one"). Other than this synchronization of archive records process, it is a one-way interface and the client may disconnect at any time by calling "shutdown" followed by "close" to close the socket. The number of active client connections is only limited by system resources.

The datafeed client will receive modified loop and archive packets as defined in common/datafeed.h - see the structures "LOOP_PKT_FP" and "ARCHIVE_PKT_FP". Conversion utilities are provided in common/datafeed.c to convert the fixed point representations transmitted over the socket back to the floating point format used internally by wview. See the alarms/sample-datafeed-client/datafeedClient.c file for an example implementation of a client and the use of the conversion utilities. Note that "HTON" denotes "host to network" and "NTOH" denotes "network to host" in the conversion utility function names. The Virtual station type uses the remote datafeed server for its data source and is another good example of the use of the datafeed server interface.

Configuration

None required for socket data feeds, just the wviewmgmt Station page "Data Push Interval" which controls how often LOOP data is pushed to the clients. Archive packets will be pushed each time a new archive record is generated. No alarm entries are required in the configuration database for datafeed clients.

Client Requirements

The datafeed sockets are regular TCP/stream PF_INET sockets. The general connection steps (in C) are as follows:

socket (...) // create the socket descriptor
[setup server address and port in socckaddr_in structure]
connect (...)

The client then may add the socket descriptor to an fdset for select calls, simply block on the socket for reads, however you want to design it. Other programming language procedures may differ, but the general approach should be the same.

Normal Processing "Loop":

  1. Wait for data on the socket
  2. Sync to the start frame sequence: 0xF388, 0xC6A2, 0xDADA, 0x000X (where "X" can be 1 or 2 indicating "LOOP" or "ARCHIVE" packet)
  3. Read loop or archive packet
  4. Convert packet from network to host format (floating point and endianess) - see the example and common/datafeed.[ch]
  5. Process the loop or archive packet
  6. Goto #1

To disconnect:

shutdown (sockfd, 2)
close (sockfd)

Note: There is a handy radlib socket API which is illustrated in the sample datafeed client source code which takes care of most of the above connection procedure for you.

Running the Example Datafeed Client

The directory alarms/sample-datafeed-client contains a simple client example including Makefile. It accepts an argument for host but will use "localhost" if none is given. It connects to the wvalarmd server and logs the current temperature when loop packets are received and logs the dateTime of the archive when archive records are received.

Build the example client:
#> cd alarms/sample-datafeed-client
#> make (or "gmake" for *BSD)

Run it:
(with wview already running)
#> ./datafeedClient [wview_hostname]

Watch the system log for wvalarmd connection messages
Watch the console for client update messages from the example client:
#> tail -f /var/log/syslog

Kill the example client:
Either "ctrl-c" if you ran it in the foreground, or "kill -15 [pid]" if you backgrounded it when you started it.

Testing multiple clients:
Just repeatedly run the datafeed client application - each client will have its own socket connection to wview. Kill them as described above when you are done.

 Using a MySQL or PostgreSQL Server to Store Data

Overview

MySQL and PostgreSQL storage of weather data is now accomplished through export scripts which are provided in the wview distribution. These scripts are run via CRON periodically to export data from the SQLite3 databases to the export databases.

MySQL Installation and Setup

  1. Ensure you have a functioning MySQL server running either local to the wview server or remote. In either case, you will need an account on the MySQL server which has create and grant privileges.
  2. Prerequisites On the wview Server - be sure you have sqlite3 and mysqlimport installed on the wview server. Even if the MySQL server is remote, you need mysqlimport installed locally.
  3. Local Server:
    Create the MySQL Database, tables and user:
    (Be sure you have set your MySQL account settings using wviewmgmt or wviewconfig before creating locally).
    #> wview-mysql-export create [root_mysql_user_password]
    (This runs wview-mysql-create for you locally using configuration database settings)

  4. Remote Server:
    Copy the wview-mysql-create script to the remote server:
    #> scp $exec_prefix/wview-mysql-create [username]@[mysql_host]:/downloads
    (copy wherever you like on the remote server)
    (wview-mysql-create can be found by executing: whereis wview-mysql-create)

    Login to the remote server:
    #> ssh [username]@[mysql_host]

    Execute the create script (make sure the admin user has the right privileges):
    #> wview-mysql-create help (to see usage text)
    #> wview-mysql-create [admin_username] [admin_password] [db_username] [db_password] [db_name]
    (admin_username can be the same as db_username)

    Log out of the remote server:
    #> exit

PostgreSQL Installation and Setup

  1. NOTE: The PostgreSQL user created when you setup PostgreSQL will either be pgsql or postgres. postgres is used for this example. We will use the unix root account for all export activities so the create and export scripts should be run as root or from the root CRON table.
  2. Ensure you have a functioning PostgreSQL server running either local to the wview server or remote.
  3. Prerequisites On the wview Server - be sure you have psql installed on the wview server. Even if the PostgreSQL server is remote, you need psql installed locally.
  4. Create a PostgreSQL user for the unix root user:
    Login to the PostgreSQL account:
    user@wview_server> su
    root@wview_server:# su postgres

    Create an administrative user based on the root unix account:
    postgres@wview_server:# createuser root

    Answer the question:
    Shall the new role be a superuser? (y/n) y

    Logout of the PostgreSQL account:
    postgres@wview_server:# exit
  5. Create the wview database:
    Create the wview database:
    root@wview_server:# createdb wviewDB
    Note: wviewDB should be the same value specified on the wviewmgmt SQL Export page for "SQL Database Name".
  6. Create the export tables and 'replace' triggers:
    root@wview_server:# wview-pgsql-create wviewDB

Test Run and Debug

The end game is to create a cron job which runs wview-mysql-export periodically (every 5 minutes seems reasonable although the export is surprisingly fast so 1 minute periods are not out of the question). First, let's run it from the command line and confirm it is working.
Note: If using PostgreSQL, substitute "wview-pgsql-export" for "wview-mysql-export".

Execute with debugs enabled:
#> wview-mysql-export debug

Examine the CSV export files:
#> cat $prefix/etc/wview/export/archive.csv
#> cat $prefix/etc/wview/export/outTemp.csv
#> cat $prefix/etc/wview/export/noaaHistory.csv

These will probably be large given this was the first export. They should contain all records up to the present time.

Examine the MySQL tables:
(login to the remote server if not local)
#> mysql --user=[db_username] --password=[db_password]
mysql> use [db_name];
mysql> select count(*) from archive;
(This should match the record count in your SQLite3 database)

mysql> select * from windDir;
(The 20 wind direction bins should display direction counts = 60/archive_interval for each row)

mysql> select * from noaaHistory;
(There should be one record for each day of archive data)

Examine the Import Logs:
#> cat $prefix/etc/wview/export/mysql_import.log

Production Setup

Add to the root crontab on the wview server:
#> sudo crontab -e

Add the following line and save the crontab:
1,6,11,16,21,26,31,36,41,46,51,56 * * * * $exec_prefix/wview-mysql-export

This runs the wview-mysql-export script every 5 minutes (1 minute past archive record reception for 5 minute archive interval)

Example where $exec_prefix is "/usr/local/bin":
1,6,11,16,21,26,31,36,41,46,51,56 * * * * /usr/local/bin/wview-mysql-export

Done - you can check the $prefix/etc/wview/export directory and the MySQL database to confirm the updates.

Notes

The records imported into the MySQL database tables are set to replace any existing records with the same dateTime stamp. This is so we get the latest HILOW records for the current hour and so if better/more complete data is re-exported, it will take precedence over older data. You will notice in the debug log file $prefix/etc/wview/export/mysql_import.log that records are deleted and inserted at incremental updates. This is the HILOW last record phenomenon.
If you need to cause a complete re-export of all data, delete the file $prefix/etc/wview/export/mysql_export_marker. The next time the wview-mysql-export script runs, all data will be exported (and replace existing data in the MySQL database).

PostGreSQL and FreeBSD Semaphore Resources

FreeBSD starts with a limited number of semaphores available for application use. radlib and wview use some semaphores and so does PostgreSQL. Often the default number is not sufficient. Here is how to increase the number of semaphores available:

  1. In /boot/loader.conf add the lines:
    kern.ipc.semmni="256"
    kern.ipc.semmns="512"
    kern.ipc.semmnu="256"
  2. In /etc/sysctl.conf add these lines:
    kern.ipc.shmmax=536870912
    kern.ipc.semmap=256
    kern.ipc.shm_use_phys=1
    kern.ipc.shmall=131072
  3. Reboot

 Existing Weatherlink Archive Files

Overview

If you have existing archive files (*.wlk) that you want to import, use the wlk2sqlite utility to import all archive records into the SQLite3 database prior to starting wview. It will find them and use them for historical charts and NOAA reports. Be sure they were collected using the same archive interval that you are going to use for your VP with wview.

Configuration

 Run Environment Description

Configuration Files ($prefix/etc/wview)

        *.conf                  - configuration files described below
        html/*.htx              - HTML template files to be customized for your 
                                  site and language
        html/parameterlist.txt  - contains the list of all available HTML tags 
                                  which can be placed in *.htx template files. 
                                  These tags are replaced each time htmlgend 
                                  generates new image and html files.
      


Data Files ($prefix/var/wview)

        *.pid                   - run time pid files created/deleted by the wview
                                  daemons. Do NOT alter or delete these files. They 
                                  should only be present if the corresponding wview 
                                  daemon is running.
        archive/wview-archive.sdb - SQLite 3 archive database file
        dev/*                   - FIFO device files created by wview - do NOT alter 
                                  or delete them
        img/*                   - default destination for generated image and HTML
                                  files - in particular if subsequent ftp/ssh of 
                                  files is required
        noaa/noaa.dat           - NOAA data file
      

 Ethernet Setup for the GW21E Serial Server

  1. Configure your GW21E IP address as described in the GW21E Quickstart Guide.
  2. Telnet into the GW21E (user=admin, passwd=NULL).
  3. Set Serial Server parameters and Packet Delimiter so that your config looks like:
            [snip]
            root@localhost:/root/dev# telnet 10.10.10.22
            Trying 10.10.10.22...
            Connected to 10.10.10.22.
            Escape character is '^]'.
            ABLELink Ethernet-Serial Server
            User name:admin
            Password:
            
            Login ok
            
            0.Exit  1.Overview  2.Networking  3.Security  4.COM1
            
            Input choice and enter(0~4): 4
            4
            
            COM0:
            1.  Link Mode (TCP Server/Virtual COM Disabled/Pair Connection Disabled/Filter disabled/3001 /Alive=10*10 sec)
            2.  COM Port (VP/RS-232/19200,None,8,1/RTS/CTS)
            3.  Keep Serial Buffer's Data While Connecting(Disabled)
            4.  Packet Delimiter (1 ms)
            5.  Accept Control Command from COM port (Disabled)
            
            Input choice and enter(1~5):
            [snip]
              

    Remember to use "CTRL-]" to get to the telnet prompt and type "quit" to exit - their utility does not have an exit path in the menu! I had to quit and re-login multiple times while configuring it.

    Given the above configuration, your wview ethernet configuration should be:
    Host: 10.10.10.22 (whatever the IP address is that you assigned it)
    Port: 3001 (set in section 4 of the GW21E config utility)

 Ethernet Setup for the Lantronix MSS1-T

  1. Connect to the MSS1-T via the serial port - factory defaults are 9600, 8N1. Login as admin, then enter "set privileged" with password "system".
  2. Configure the MSS1-T so that your "show server" command displays:
            Lantronix MSS1 Version V3.5/5(980529)
            
            Type HELP at the 'Local_2> ' prompt for assistance.
            
            Username> admin
            
            Local_2> show server
            
               MSS1 Version V3.5/5(980529)            Uptime:                  0:06:16
               Hardware Addr: 00-80-a3-0f-f3-e2       Name/Nodenum:      MSS_0FF3E2/ 0
               Ident String: Micro Serial Server
            
               Inactive Timer (min):           30     Serial Delay (msec):          10
               Password Limit:                  3     Session Limit:                 4
               Queue Limit:                    32     Node/Host Limits:          50/20
            
            LAT  Circuit Timer (msec):         80     Keepalive Timer (sec):        20
               Multicast Timer (sec):          30     Retrans Limit:                10
            
            TCP/IP Address:           10.10.10.22     Subnet Mask:       255.255.255.0
               Nameserver:            (undefined)     Backup Nameserver:   (undefined)
               TCP/IP Gateway:         10.10.10.1     Backup Gateway:      (undefined)
               Domain Name:           (undefined)     Daytime Queries:         Enabled
                                                      TCP Keepalives:          Enabled
               DHCP Server:                  None     Lease Time:                 0:00
            
               Load Address:    00-00-00-00-00-00     Prompt:              Local_%n%P>
            
               Characteristics:
               Incoming Logins:  Telnet   (No Passwords Required)
               LAT Groups: 0
            
            Local_2>
            
            The port to use on the MSS1-T is the raw mode port 3001.
            
            Given the above configuration, your wview ethernet configuration should
            be:
            Host: 10.10.10.22    (whatever the IP address is that you assigned it)
            Port: 3001           (not configurable)
              

 Endian Conversion Utilities

wview provides two command-line utilities to convert wview archive directories from Big Endian-to-Little Endian or Little Endian-to-Big Endian. These are necessary if you want to change your wview host from a Mac/NSLU2 to a PC or vice versa.

arc_be2le
Usage: arc-be2le [source_directory] [dest_directory]

Convert wview archive data in [source_directory] from big endian to little endian then store the result in [dest_directory].

arc_le2be
Usage: arc_le2be [source_directory] [dest_directory]

Convert wview archive data in [source_directory] from little endian to big endian then store the result in [dest_directory].


 Chapter 8: Troubleshooting

This chapter provides invaluable information for understanding wview operation and diagnosing problems you may encounter.

 wview Processes

Please note there are two unix processes for each wview daemon: this is normal radlib operation. One is the actual daemon and the other is a "reflector" process which allows the daemon to send events to itself and to open the message queue FIFO properly. Don't let that bother you.

Here are the processes running on my server (no ssh/ftp because I don't need it):

    root@localhost:/root# ps aux | grep wv
    root     73863  0.0  0.2  2320 1808  ??  Ss    7:08AM   0:00.02 /usr/local/bin/radmrouted 1 $prefix/var/wview
    root     73865  0.0  0.2  2300 1780  ??  I     7:08AM   0:00.00 /usr/local/bin/radmrouted 1 $prefix/var/wview
    root     73868  0.0  0.1  2380 1472  ??  Ss    7:08AM   0:00.36 /usr/local/bin/wviewd
    root     73870  0.0  0.1  2356 1196  ??  I     7:08AM   0:00.00 /usr/local/bin/wviewd
    root     73873  0.0  0.1  2376 1524  ??  Is    7:08AM   0:35.43 /usr/local/bin/wviewsqld
    root     73875  0.0  0.1  2324 1140  ??  I     7:08AM   0:00.00 /usr/local/bin/wviewsqld
    root     73879  0.0  0.1  2336 1468  ??  Ss    7:08AM   0:00.01 /usr/local/bin/wvalarmd
    root     73881  0.0  0.1  2312 1136  ??  I     7:08AM   0:00.00 /usr/local/bin/wvalarmd
    root     73882  0.0  0.1  2392 1504  ??  Is    7:08AM   0:00.01 /usr/local/bin/wvcwopd
    root     73884  0.0  0.1  2304 1136  ??  I     7:08AM   0:00.00 /usr/local/bin/wvcwopd
    root     73885  0.0  0.3  4944 3100  ??  Is    7:08AM   0:00.03 /usr/local/bin/wvhttpd
    root     73886  0.0  0.2  4788 2216  ??  I     7:08AM   0:00.00 /usr/local/bin/wvhttpd
    root@localhost:/root# ps aux | grep htmlgen
    root     73876  0.0  0.3  3960 2800  ??  Is    7:08AM   0:05.82 /usr/local/bin/htmlgend
    root     73878  0.0  0.2  3860 1964  ??  I     7:08AM   0:00.00 /usr/local/bin/htmlgend
    root@localhost:/root#
      

This indicates I have 6 wview daemons running: wviewd, htmlgend, wviewsqld, wvalarmd, wvcwopd and wvhttpd. It also displays the radlib message router process radmrouted.

 Observing wview Operation

wview logs quite a bit of information about what is being initialized, daemons started, etc. in the system log file (/var/log/messages, /var/log/syslog, etc.). This is where to go to try to investigate a startup problem or just observe what wview is "doing".
On the other hand, once you get everything set up the way you want, you can disable informational logs if you are concerned about how quickly your /var/log/syslog file is rolling over (you are rotating your log files, right?). Set verbosity off as required on the wviewmgmt Services page to disable informational log entries. You can always re-enable it if you need the verbosity.


The daily historical charts are generated using the archive records from the last 24 hours. The granularity depends upon your archive interval choice. These charts are updated at the same frequency as the archive interval to include the last archive interval.

The weekly and28-day> historical charts are generated using the hourly average of archive records for the last 28 days. These charts are updated once per hour to include the last hour's averages.

The 365-day historical charts are generated using the daily average of archive records for the last 365 days. These charts are updated once per day (12:01AM) to include the last day's averages.

 SYS V IPC (Interprocess Communication)

wview uses many radlib facilities which are based on the system V IPC concepts of shared memory and semaphores.

Here is a listing of IPC objects while wview is running (FreeBSD):

root@localhost:/root# ipcs
        Message Queues:
        T     ID     KEY        MODE       OWNER    GROUP
        
        Shared Memory:
        T     ID     KEY        MODE       OWNER    GROUP
        m 4128768     126979 --rw-rw-r--     root    wheel
        m 4128769     126977 --rw-rw-r--     root    wheel
        m 4128770  267386882 --rw-rw-r--     root    wheel
        
        Semaphores:
        T     ID     KEY        MODE       OWNER    GROUP
        s 4128768  267386881 --rw-r--r--     root    wheel
        s 4128769     126978 --rw-r--r--     root    wheel
            
root@localhost:/root#

And, after running /etc/rc.d/wview stop:
root@localhost:/root# /etc/rc.d/wview stop
Shutting down weather daemons...
root@localhost:/root# ipcs
        Message Queues:
        T     ID     KEY        MODE       OWNER    GROUP
        
        Shared Memory:
        T     ID     KEY        MODE       OWNER    GROUP
        
        Semaphores:
        T     ID     KEY        MODE       OWNER    GROUP
            
root@localhost:/root#

Linux systems tend to have other IPC objects defined - you do not want to disturb those. The wview objects are discernable by the "KEY" values:
126977 (0x1F001) - 126979 (0x1F003)    (wview-specific)
267386881 (0xFF00001) - 267386882 (0xFF00002)    (radlib general)

If, after shutting down wview, any of the IPC objects associated with wview (or radlib) still remain, you will need to remove them manually using the "ipcrm" command. This is normally caused by failed wview starts when initially installing wview with improper configuration or by a faulty wview start/stop script which is leaving wview processes running.

 wview Startup

wview generates a number of log messages, in particular during initialization. The system log file is normally /var/log/messages. I typically run "tail -f /var/log/syslog" in a separate console when starting up wview. You should also when you first install it. Informational logs can later be disabled using the wviewmgmt web interface (Services page) then sending a HUP signal to wviewd and htmlgend: (kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/wviewd.pid`) and (kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/htmlgend.pid`) respectively.

If you have errors in your startup log, you will need to stop all wview daemons using the wview start script (/etc/init.d/wview stop). These are independent processes which will not shut down automatically if there is an error in one of them. You must use the wview script.

Here is what the log file looks like on my server when wview starts up, so you know what a good start looks like:

    Apr 18 08:48:44 linuxquad radmrouted[11676]: <1240062524756> : radlib: radmrouted started as a daemon ...
    Apr 18 08:48:44 linuxquad radmrouted[11676]: <1240062524764> : started on radlib system 1, workdir /usr/local/var/wview
    Apr 18 08:48:44 linuxquad radmrouted[11676]: <1240062524764> : running...                                              
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525759> : radlib: wviewd started as a daemon ...                      
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525759> : wview 5.4.0 starting ...                                    
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525777> : station interface: serial ...                               
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525777> : Rain Season Start Month set to 1                            
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525777> : Rain Storm Start Trigger set to  0.05 in/hr                 
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525778> : Rain Storm Stop Time set to 12 hours                        
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525778> : Rain YTD preset set to 0.00 inches                          
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525778> : ET YTD preset set to 0.000 inches                           
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525778> : bad rain/ET YTD Year given, disabling...                                                           
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525778> : station polling interval set to 30 seconds                                                         
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525837> : HILOW: database OK                                                                                 
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525837> : HILOW: beginning normal LOOP operation                                                             
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525837> : -- Station Init Start --                                                                           
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525838> : station archive interval: 5 minutes                                                                
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525838> : Simulator station opened: 720 minute data generation period...                                     
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525839> : running...                                                                                         
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525839> : station location: elevation: 751 feet                                                              
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525839> : station location: latitude: 33.6 N  longitude: 96.9 W                                              
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525839> : initializing computed data values...                                                               
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525841> : computeDataAllTime: 200904                                                                         
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525846> : computeDataYear: 200904                                                                            
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525851> : computeDataMonth: 200904                                                                           
    Apr 18 08:48:45 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062525856> : computeDataWeek: 20090414                                                                          
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062526054> : -- Station Init Complete --                                                                        
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wviewd[11680]: <1240062526055> : newest archive record: 2009-04-14 22:40                                                            
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062526745> : radlib: htmlgend started as a daemon ...                                                         
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvalarmd[11691]: <1240062526746> : radlib: wvalarmd started as a daemon ...                                                         
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062526746> : generating to /usr/local/var/wview/img                                                           
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062526746> : templates at /usr/local/etc/wview/html                                                           
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062526747> : !! Dual units will be displayed !!                                                               
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062526747> : Tag Search red-black tree: max black node tree height: 7                                         
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvalarmd[11691]: <1240062526747> : ALARM daemon not enabled - exiting...                                                            
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvcwopd[11696]: <1240062526747> : radlib: wvcwopd started as a daemon ...                                                           
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvcwopd[11696]: <1240062526748> : CWOP daemon is NOT enabled - exiting...                                                           
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wviewftpd[11701]: <1240062526749> : radlib: wviewftpd started as a daemon ...                                                       
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wviewftpd[11701]: <1240062526750> : ftp daemon disabled - exiting...                                                                
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wviewsshd[11706]: <1240062526751> : radlib: wviewsshd started as a daemon ...                                                       
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wviewsshd[11706]: <1240062526752> : ssh daemon disabled - exiting...                                                                
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526753> : radlib: wvpmond started as a daemon ...                                                           
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: wviewd: 0                                                                                   
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: wviewd process monitoring is disabled                                                       
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: htmlgend: 0                                                                                 
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: htmlgend process monitoring is disabled                                                     
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: wvalarmd: 120                                                                               
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: pid file /usr/local/var/wview/wvalarmd.pid not present, disable monitoring...               
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: wvcwopd: 120                                                                                
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: pid file /usr/local/var/wview/wvcwopd.pid not present, disable monitoring...                
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: wvhttpd: 120                                                                                
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: pid file /usr/local/var/wview/wvhttpd.pid not present, disable monitoring...                
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: wviewsqld: 600                                                                              
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : PMON: pid file /usr/local/var/wview/wviewsqld.pid not present, disable monitoring...              
    Apr 18 08:48:46 linuxquad wvpmond[11711]: <1240062526829> : running...                                                                                        
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527294> : running...                                                                                       
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527294> : received station info from wviewd: 20090414 22:40:00                                             
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527298> : htmlmgrInit: 51 built-in image definitions added                                                 
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527306> : htmlmgrInit: 0 user image definitions added                                                      
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527314> : htmlmgrInit: 14 templates added                                                                  
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527314> : htmlmgrInit: forecast html tags are disabled - /usr/local/etc/wview/forecast.conf not found...   
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527316> : initializing barometric pressure trend                                                           
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527316> : initializing historical stores (this may take some time...)                                      
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527316> : htmlHistoryInit: DAY: samples=0                                                                  
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527325> : htmlHistoryInit: DAY: samples=50
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527333> : htmlHistoryInit: DAY: samples=100
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527341> : htmlHistoryInit: DAY: samples=150
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527349> : htmlHistoryInit: DAY: samples=200
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527357> : htmlHistoryInit: DAY: samples=250
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527364> : htmlHistoryInit: DAY: samples=288
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527364> : htmlHistoryInit: WEEK: samples=0
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527372> : htmlHistoryInit: WEEK: samples=50
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527393> : htmlHistoryInit: WEEK: samples=100
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527401> : htmlHistoryInit: WEEK: samples=150
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527404> : htmlHistoryInit: WEEK: samples=168
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527404> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=0
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527412> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=50
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527421> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=100
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527429> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=150
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527437> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=200
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527445> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=250
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527453> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=300
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527461> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=350
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527470> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=400
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527478> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=450
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527486> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=500
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527494> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=550
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527515> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=600
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527523> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=650
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527527> : htmlHistoryInit: MONTH: samples=672
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527550> : htmlHistoryInit: YEAR: samples=0
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527578> : htmlHistoryInit: YEAR: samples=50
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527607> : htmlHistoryInit: YEAR: samples=100
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527635> : htmlHistoryInit: YEAR: samples=150
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527664> : htmlHistoryInit: YEAR: samples=200
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527692> : htmlHistoryInit: YEAR: samples=250
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527721> : htmlHistoryInit: YEAR: samples=300
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527749> : htmlHistoryInit: YEAR: samples=350
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527769> : htmlHistoryInit: storing day history for Tue Apr 14 00:05:00 2009
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527783> : htmlHistoryInit: YEAR: samples=365
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527784> : HILOW: OK
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527785> : NOAA DB: OK
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527785> : NOAA: initilizing reports (this may take some time...)
    Apr 18 08:48:47 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062527785> : NOAA DB: syncing 19700101 => 20090417
    Apr 18 08:49:01 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062541977> : NOAA DB: done: 4 HILOW records => 1 NOAA records
    Apr 18 08:49:02 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062542006> : NOAA Generate: creating monthly NOAA reports starting 200904
    Apr 18 08:49:02 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062542029> : NOAA Generate: creating yearly NOAA reports starting 2009
    Apr 18 08:49:02 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062542033> : ARCREC: initializing archive browser files (this may take some time...)
    Apr 18 08:49:03 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062543000> : starting html generation in 1 mins 7 secs
    Apr 18 08:49:03 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062543000> : doing initial html generation now...
    Apr 18 08:49:03 linuxquad htmlgend[11686]: <1240062543113> : Generated: 113 ms: 51 images, 14 template files
      

Linux systems tend to have other IPC objects defined - you do not want to disturb those. The wview objects are discernable by the "KEY" values:
126977 (0x1F001) - 126979 (0x1F003)    (wview-specific) 267386881 (0xFF00001) - 267386882 (0xFF00002)    (radlib general)

If, after shutting down wview, any of the IPC objects associated with wview (or radlib) still remain, you will need to remove them manually using the "ipcrm" command. This is normally caused by failed wview starts when initially installing wview with improper configuration or by a faulty wview start/stop script which is leaving wview processes running.

 Log Verbosity

Log Verbosity refers to status level logs - "normal" operation informational messages. These can be quite interesting when first starting wview or after an upgrade. But when enabled it can generate a bit of log file volume.

While wview is running, you can toggle the log verbosity for a given wview daemon by sending a HUP signal to that process (this also causes a reload of image/html configuration for htmlgend). Below are the suitable shell commands for each daemon:

    kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/wviewd.pid`
    kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/htmlgend.pid`
    kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/wviewftpd.pid`
    kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/wviewsshd.pid`
    kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/wvalarmd.pid`
    kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/wvcwopd.pid`
    kill -s HUP `cat $prefix/var/wview/wvhttpd.pid`
      

 Vantage Pro

Wireless Reception

If you are missing archive records, receiving bad archive records, or your current conditions values don't update as expected, you may have problems with the wireless reception from the Vantage Pro Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS). You can access a chart which displays the percentage of successful packets received at: http://[your_weather_site_url]/rxcheck.png.
If the graph displays points equal to zero or at very low values, you should investigate why your wireless reception is so poor. Possible solutions include: changing the gain on your VP Console, moving your VP Console to improve reception or perhaps moving your ISS for better reception.

Serial Interface Problems

If you see a log message similar to:
daemonStartProcState: lat and long failed

or periodic logs similar to:
wakeupConsole: Read ERROR!

or:
wakeupConsole: Invalid data: FE 13 (data values "FE 13" will vary)

you have a serial interface problem. The best test is to stop wview if it is running and use vpconfig to verify your serial interface.

You should be able to run "vpconfig [device] show" repeatedly without any failures being reported (see section 15.6 for vpconfig usage).

Possible culprits are:

wview will not work properly without a reliable serial interface.

 WXT510

Comm Problems

If you see error messages like "NMEA: nmea0183Init: XXX failed!" when starting wview, it is a good indication that the comm settings on the WXT510 have not been set correctly. Be sure you run wxt510config BEFORE your first wview start. wxt510config searches through all possible comm setting combinations until it "fimds" the WXT510, then it sets the comm parameters properly for wview.

Sensor Problems

If you see an error similar to: "NMEA: nmea0183GetReadings: 0x7FC1: not all sensors updated..." then there is the possibility that the THP sensor connector header under the very top of the WXT510 is not making good contact. You can remove the long screws which hold the entire station together then remove the 3 very small screws which retain the upper PCB cover. Take care to mate the small header in the middle well then hold the cover in place while screwing the retaining screws back in. Make sure you do not dislodge the ribbon cable connections.

 Using raddebug

raddebug is a general debug utility which is installed when you install radlib. It can be used to display semaphore usage, buffer usage and radmrouted statisitics:

#> raddebug 1 $prefix/var/wview

It will output something like:

    Attached to radlib system 1: UP 0 years, 0 months, 0 days, 5 hours, 17 minutes, 26 seconds
    
    Buffer Allocation by Size:
    Dumping index 0: size 64: Free/Total 64/64
    Dumping index 1: size 128: Free/Total 128/128
    Dumping index 2: size 256: Free/Total 244/256
    Dumping index 3: size 512: Free/Total 256/256
    Dumping index 4: size 1024: Free/Total 128/128
    Dumping index 5: size 2048: Free/Total 64/64
    Dumping index 6: size 4096: Free/Total 32/32
    
    Buffer Summary:
            Total Free: 916
            Total Allocated: 12
            Total Allocations Since Started: 121628
    
    Semaphore Info:
    INDEX   COUNT  WAITERS  ZCNT   PID
      0       0      0        0     0
      1       0      0        0     0
      2       1      0        0     63615
      3       0      0        0     0
      4       1      0        0     61597
      5       0      0        0     0
      6       0      0        0     0
      7       0      0        0     0
      8       0      0        0     0
      9       0      0        0     0
     10       0      0        0     0
     11       0      0        0     0
     12       0      0        0     0
     13       0      0        0     0
     14       0      0        0     0
     15       0      0        0     0
    
    raddebug[63615]: [3310611880] : radlib: raddebug started ...
    Dumping message router stats to the system log file...
      

Then view the message router (radmrouted) statistics:

#> sudo tail -n 400 -f /var/log/syslog

With output like:

    raddebug[63615]: [3310611880] : radlib: raddebug started ...
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : ---------- Message Router Totals:  TX:0000001851  RX:0000001662 ----------
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] :      Name       MSGS TX         MSGS RX          TXERRS          RXERRS
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : -------------- ----------      ----------      ----------      ----------
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : wviewd               1021             641               0               0
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : wviewsqld               1              64               0               0
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : wvalarmd                1             318               0               0
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : htmlgend              637             700               0               0
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : wvcwopd                 1              64               0               0
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : wvhttpd                 1              64               0               0
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : raddebug                0               0               0               0
    radmrouted[61576]: [3310611917] : --------------------------------------------------------------------------
      

 Running In the Foreground

Typically wview processes run in the background as daemons which among other properties implies that they have no controlling terminal and stdin/stdout/stderr have been closed. This makes it difficult to debug using traditional tools such as gdb since the process that gdb starts is forked of to a daemon and closes.
To allow foreground process debugging for the wview processes, a command line argument is defined which forces all process to run in the foreground and not as daemons. "-f" given as an argument to any wview process binary will cause it to run in the foreground thus enabling use of gdb or other debugging tools. This should only be done for debugging or analysis purposes and not for production environments.
Note that some wview startup scripts support the argument "start-trace" which runs the processes in the foreground and traces their system calls using the strace unix utility. Output of strace is placed in the file ${prefix}/var/wview/[process_name].trace (i.e., htmlgend.trace).

 Appendix 1: Distribution Contents

/stations/common Source directory for the station daemon
/stations/VantagePro Source directory for the Davis Vantage Pro/Pro2 interface
/stations/Simulator Source directory for the station simulator
/stations/WXT510 Source directory for the Vaisala WXT510 interface
/stations/WS-2300 Source directory for the La Crosse WS-23XX interface
/stations/WMR918 Source directory for the Oregon Scientific WMR9X8 interface
/htmlgenerator Source directory for the file generator
/common Common source and build files
/wviewmgmt Source directory for the wview management web site
/examples/conf Example config files (see description below)
/examples/html/classic Example HTML template files and tag description file parameters.txt (see description below)
/examples/html/chrome Example HTML template files and tag description file parameters.txt (see description below)
/utilities/archive-be2le Source directory for the wview archive directory Big-Endian to Little-Endian command line convertor
/utilities/archive-le2be Source directory for the wview archive directory Little-Endian to Big-Endian command line convertor
/utilities/wlk2sqlite Source directory for the wview WLK to SQLite3 archive convertor
/utilities/sqlite2wlk Source directory for the wview SQLite3 to WLK archive convertor
/configure build configuration script to be executed before building wview
/cross-compile Contains example configure scripts for cross compilation. libz, libpng, libgd, librad and wview scripts are included (and should be built in that order). Use these scripts instead of "./configure" to configure these libraries for cross compilation. These scripts configure for arm-linux targets but could easily be edited for a different target.
/scripts Contains example helper scripts for wview installation and update.
/ChangeLog The release notes file
/wview-User-Manual.html This file, the User Manual
/wview-Quick-Start.html Quick Start Guide
/wview-Quick-Start-MacOSX.html MacOSX-specific Quick Start Guide
/wview-Quick-Start-Debian.html Debian-specific Quick Start Guide
/UPGRADE Notes on upgrading from previous versions

 Appendix 2: Adding New Weather Stations to wview

The wview station API is prototyped in ../stations/common/station.h. For full details of the functional requirements please refer to station.h and existing station interfaces.

 Required Functions

Init Function

Can Be Asynchronous - event indication required.

MUST (in this order):

  1. Set the 'stationGeneratesArchives' flag in WVIEWD_WORK: if the station generates archive records (TRUE) or they should be generated automatically by the daemon from the sensor readings (FALSE).
  2. Initialize the 'stationData' store for station work area.
  3. Initialize the interface medium.
  4. Determine the station archive interval - either from the station itself or from user configuration in wview-conf.sdb - and set the 'work->archiveInterval' variable (in minutes) in WVIEWD_WORK.
  5. VERIFY the archive interval by calling 'stationVerifyArchiveInterval' - If they don't match, indicate an errant start via the call: radProcessEventsSend (NULL, STATION_INIT_COMPLETE_EVENT, 1) and stopping further init activities here!
  6. Do any catch-up on archive records if there is a data logger (can be asynchronous) - the 'work->runningFlag' can be used for start up synchronization but should not be modified by the station interface code.
  7. Do initial LOOP acquisition.
  8. indicate successful initialization is done via the call: radProcessEventsSend (NULL, STATION_INIT_COMPLETE_EVENT, 0).

Optional:
Initialize a state machine or any other construct required for the station interface - these should be stored in the 'stationData' store (see the VantagePro station interface for an example of this).
'archiveIndication' - indication callback used to pass back an archive record generated as a result of 'stationGetArchive' being called; should receive a NULL pointer for 'newRecord' if no record available; only used if 'stationGeneratesArchives' flag is set to TRUE by the station interface.

    extern int stationInit
    (
        WVIEWD_WORK     *work,
        void            (*archiveIndication)(ARCHIVE_RECORD *newRecord)
    );
      

Exit Function

Cleans up any data created during init call.

    extern void stationExit (WVIEWD_WORK *work);
      

stationGetPosition Function

Station-supplied function to retrieve positional info (lat, long, elev) - should populate WVIEWD_WORK fields: latitude, longitude, elevation. Synchronous.
If station does not store these parameters, they can be retrieved from the wview-conf.sdb file (see the 'stationGetConfigValue' utilities below) - user must choose station type "NameOfStation" when running the wviewconfig script. Returns: OK or ERROR.

    extern int stationGetPosition (WVIEWD_WORK *work);
      

stationSyncTime Function

Station-supplied function to indicate a time sync should be performed if the station maintains time, otherwise may be safely ignored. Can be asynchronous. Returns: OK or ERROR.

    extern int stationSyncTime (WVIEWD_WORK *work);
      

stationGetReadings Function

station-supplied function to indicate sensor readings should be performed - should populate 'work' struct: loopPkt (see datadefs.h for minimum field requirements). Can Be Asynchronous.
Indicate readings are complete by sending the STATION_LOOP_COMPLETE_EVENT event to this process (radProcessEventsSend (NULL, STATION_LOOP_COMPLETE_EVENT, 0)).

    extern int stationGetReadings (WVIEWD_WORK *work);
      

stationGetArchive Function

Station-supplied function to indicate an archive record should be generated - MUST populate an ARCHIVE_RECORD struct and indicate it to 'archiveIndication' function passed into 'stationInit'. Asynchronous - callback indication required. Returns: OK or ERROR.
Note: 'archiveIndication' should receive a NULL pointer for the newRecord if no record is available.
Note: This function will only be invoked by the wview daemon if the 'stationInit' function set the 'stationGeneratesArchives' to TRUE.

    extern int stationGetArchive (WVIEWD_WORK *work);
      

stationDataIndicate Function

Station-supplied function to indicate data is available on the station interface medium (serial or ethernet) - it is the responsibility of the station interface to read the data from the medium and process appropriately. The data does not have to be read within the context of this function, but may be used to stimulate a state machine. Can be asynchronous.

    extern void stationDataIndicate (WVIEWD_WORK *work);
      

stationIFTimerExpiry Function

Station-supplied function to indicate the interface timer has expired - It is the responsibility of the station interface to start/stop the interface timer as needed for the particular station requirements. The station interface timer is specified by the 'ifTimer' member of the WVIEWD_WORK structure. No other timers in that structure should be manipulated in any way by the station interface code. Can be asynchronous.


    extern void stationIFTimerExpiry (WVIEWD_WORK *work);
      

 Notes